The Montreal Protocol

The Montreal Protocol is a global agreement to protect the stratosphere ozone layer by phasing out the production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances (ODS).

Rwanda Signed

Rwanda Ratification

25 May 2017

Countries ratified


Goal & Rationale

The Montreal protocol aims to regulate the production and use of chemicals that contribute to the depletion of the Earth ozone layer 


Fluorinated gases have a very high global warming potential. Therefore, even small atmospheric concentrations can have disproportionately large effects on global temperatures. They also have long atmospheric lifetimes. In this respect, international agreements such as the Vienna Convention and its related Montreal Protocol and the Kigali Amendment to the protocol have been signed. 

The Vienna Convention was adopted on 22 March 1985 in Vienna, Austria, and has been effective since 22 September 1988. It acts as a framework for international efforts to protect the ozone layer. Legally binding reduction goals for the use of CFCs, the main chemical agents causing ozone depletion, are reflected in the Montreal Protocol.

197 countries are parties to the Vienna Convention and Rwanda ratified it on 25 May 2017. 

Focal Point: Martine Uwera (


Key Aspects of Montreal Protocol

  • Phasing down the consumption and production of Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS) in a stepwise manner, with different timetables for developed and developing countries (referred to as “Article 5 countries”)
  • Under this treaty, all parties have specific responsibilities related to the phase-out of the different groups of ODS, control of ODS trade, annual reporting of data, national licensing systems to control ODS imports and exports, and other matters
  • The Protocol includes provisions related to Control Measures (Article 2)
  • Calculation of control levels (Article 3)
  • Control of trade with non-Parties (Article 4)
  • The special situation of developing countries (Article 5)
  • Reporting of data (Article 7)
  • Non-compliance (Article 8)
  • Technical assistance (Article 10)


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